This paper describes recent developments in gun operating techniques at the Ames ballistic range complex. This range complex has been in operation since the early 1960s. Behavior of sabots during separation and projectile-target impact phenomena have long been observed by means of short-duration flash X-rays: new versions allow operation in the lower-energy ("soft") X-ray range and have been found to be more effective than the earlier designs. The dynamics of sabot separation is investigated in some depth from X-ray photographs of sabots launched in the Ames 1.0 in and 1.5 in guns; the sabot separation dynamics appears to be in reasonably good agreement with standard aerodynamic theory. Certain sabot packages appear to suffer no erosion or plastic deformation on traversing the gun barrel, contrary to what would be expected. Gun erosion data from the Ames 0.5 in, 1.0 in, and 1.5 in guns is examined in detail and can be correlated with a particular non- dimensionalized powder mass parameter. The gun erosion increases very rapidly as this parameter is increased. Representative shapes of eroded gun barrels are given. Guided by a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, the operating conditions of the Ames 0.5 in and 1.5 in guns were modified. These changes involved: (1) reduction in the piston mass, powder mass and hydrogen fill pressure and (2) reduction in pump tube volume, while maintaining hydrogen mass. These changes resulted in muzzle velocity increases of 0.5-0.8 km/sec, achieved simultaneously with 30-50 percent reductions in gun erosion.